With the rise of third-generation semiconductors, electronic devices are developing towards high-power, miniaturization and integration, which causes the heat flux density of chips increasing rapidly. Due to above reasons, heat accumulation has become a critical problem which restricts the improvement of electronic devices performance. Diamond based materials have excellent thermal properties, efficient heat dissipation technology based on these materials has become a key direction to solve the ultra-high heat flux dissipation problem. This article reviews the application of diamond based materials in efficient heat dissipation, and discusses the main methods of fabricating surface micro-channels of diamond heat sink. The development and application of diamond based materials for efficient heat dissipation technology can provide technical support for solving the problem of high heat flux dissipation.